The Exodus Story
During this time Egypt was under the rule of the Hyksos also known as the Shepherd Kings. These people from Asia Minor were of Semite descent and have been falsely identified as the pharaohs during the time of Joseph. It was also during this time period that the scriptures bear record of a "new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8). In Exodus 1:9 the new king said "The people of the Children of Israel are more and mightier than we:". This is further evidence that these kings were not Egyptian since there were more Egyptians than Israelites at that time.
The 10 Plagues of Egypt
Each of the plagues called down by Moses were directed against the gods of Egypt showing that Jehovah was indeed the only true God (Genesis 7-12).
1. Water turned into blood Against the god Nilus, the sacred river god.
2. Frogs against Hekt, the goddess of reproduction.
3. Lice - against Seb, the god of the ground (earth).
4. Flies against Khephera, the sacred scarab.
5. Murrain, that killed the cattle against Apis and Hathor, the sacred bull and cow.
6. Boils on man and beast against Typhon, the evil eye god.
7. Hail against Shu, the god of the atmosphere.
8. Locust against Serapis, the protector of locust.
9. 3 days of darkness against Ra, the sun god.
10. Death of the first born against Ptah, the god of life.
Evidence Supporting the Exodus Date of 1447 BC
According to archaeological evidence and historical record the fourth year of Solomon’s reign was 967 B.C. I Kings 6:1 states that it was also 480 years since the Israelites came out of Egypt. This places the Exodus at 1447 B.C. Exodus 12:40 tells that the children of Israel were in Egypt 430 years placing Joseph during the reign of Sesostris III (12th Dynasty). Most scholars date the Exodus at 1250 B.C, placing Joseph during the time of the Hyksos. Unfortunately, this date is not confirmed by true archaeological and historical record. Joseph cannot be placed during the reign of the Hyksos, because the Bible clearly states that his first master, Potiphar, was Egyptian—unlike the Hyksos people who were Semitic. It is highly unlikely that a Hyksos ruler would have entrusted his safety to an Egyptian officer.
The Hyksos never had control over all of Egypt, only the northern portion. It has been documented that Sesostris III accomplished a radical reorganization of the land of Egypt bringing them under one rule. Previously, the land was divided into groups called Nomes. Joseph probably completed this during the seven year famine, when he brought all of Egypt under one rule (Genesis 45:8). It says in Genesis 41:45, that pharaoh gave Joseph the daughter of the “Priest of On” as his wife. This would be consistent with an Egyptian pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty for the Hyksos worshipped Seth.
When Joseph prepared a feast for his brothers on their second return to Egypt, the Egyptians sat at separate tables because it was an abomination for the Egyptians to sit with Hebrews (Semitic). If this had taken place during the Hyksos period there would have been no need for separation because they were Semitic themselves (Genesis 43:32).
When Moses had to flee Egypt because Pharaoh wanted to kill him, he stayed in the wilderness for forty years until those who wanted him were dead (Exodus 4:19). During the 15th century, the only Egyptian king who ruled for more than forty years was Thutmosis. No other sovereign of the 18th Dynasty could have been Pharaoh of the Oppression. This leaves Thutmosis’ successor, Amenhotep II, as Pharaoh of the Exodus.
In reference to the Pharaoh of the Exodus, Amenhotep II, more evidence is found to back up the date of 1447 B.C. though not the crown prince, Thutmosis IV, son of Amenhotep II, became the next pharaoh. This is consistent with the Exodus pharaoh, since the first born died in the tenth plague (death of the first born).
Interestingly the next three pharaohs after Amenhotep II, became interested in the concept of a single god known as Aten, the visible disk of the sun. This is the only time period in Egyptian history when the culture was monotheistic. The timing of this practice coincides with the humbling of the Egyptian people by the true God “Jehovah”. By the time of Amenhotep II’s great-grand son, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), Aten was worshipped to the exclusion of all other gods. Beginning with the reign of King Tut, this practice was stopped.
The Story of the Stela of Thutmosis IV
Between the two paws of the Great Sphinx is a granite slab recording a dream of Thutmosis IV. This poem (stela) tells of the Sphinx revealing himself in a dream and foretelling the future reign of Thutmosis IV as pharaoh of Egypt. When he came to power, he was instructed to remove the deep sand which had built up around the paws of the Sphinx. During his reign, he married a Mitannian princess to keep peace between the two nations, Midan and Egypt, which were having strained relations during this time.
The Habiru of The Tell el-Amarna Letters
The discovery of the Tell el-Amarna tablets in 1887 provided for the first time the Canaanite version of the Hebrew invasion under Joshua. These tablets give an account almost identical to the settlement of the invading Hebrews found in the book of Joshua. The Habriu are accepted almost unanimously by the scholarly world as being none other than the Hebrews.
One of the Tell el-Amarna Tablets
Again, Archaeology has demonstrated that the Bible is a literal historical account of mankind.